```
/**
* An Integer can take on values from -2^31 to + 2^31. The argument x can
* take on values from 0 to 2^31. This means that all outputs of sqrt(x)
* can only fall in the range of 1 to sqrt(2^31) because 2^31 is the
* largest possible Integer input. Thus, we can limit our binary search
* range to [1, min(x, sqrt(2^31))]
*/
// We compute this value once by means of the standard library or a
// hand-computed number
static int MAX_SQUARE_ROOT_BOUND = (int) Math.sqrt(Integer.MAX_VALUE);
public static int sqrt(int x) {
// Check value of x
if (x < 0) {
return -1;
}
if (x == 0) {
return 0;
}
int start = 1;
int end = Math.min(x, MAX_SQUARE_ROOT_BOUND);
int flooredSqrt = -1;
while (start <= end) {
int middle = (start + end) / 2;
// Faster than using Math.pow(middle, 2)
int middleSquared = middle * middle;
if (middleSquared > x) {
// Our middleSquared estimate was too high so we adjust the
// end marker down
end = middle - 1;
} else if (middleSquared < x) {
// Our middleSquared estimate was too low so we adjust the
// start marker up
start = middle + 1;
// If we adjusting the search range upwards, then we should
// save the existing estimate for the square-root. By saving
// this value here, we are essentially performing the flooring.
flooredSqrt = middle;
} else { // squared == n
// We found the square root exactly
return middle;
}
}
return flooredSqrt;
}
```

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